A Level in Time
When this publication was born in 1882 (no, Marilyn Scales and I weren’t round then!), it was a really slim publication named The Canadian Mining Evaluation.
Inside 5 years it had taken on a hot-headed and daring younger Scottish cricketer/editor, B.T.A. Bell. He not solely reworked The Evaluation right into a nationwide must-read month-to-month, however organized and energized the fledgeling mining teams throughout the nation.
He tried his finest to rout out the scoundrels, whereas cajoling the nation’s politicians and associations to get collectively. In researching for this text, I dove down many rabbit holes and got here up extraordinarily impressed with the work of Bell.
He was my predecessor as editor by a century (he began at The Evaluation in 1887, whereas I began at CMJ in 1986).
This piece is a timeline pointing to the most important occasions and mining camps which have formed Canada’s mining business to 2022.
It was arduous to decide on the keepers, however boiled all the way down to an intense dialogue with my husband George Werniuk (P.Geo.). The sidebars are recollections from just a few of the various former editors.
My analysis was made simpler by librarians who’ve rescued previous print publications by making them digitally obtainable, typically on-line. Now that it’s simple, take the chance to look again into the previous mining publications.
Contemplating the 1000’s of mines which have come and gone, and typically come again, it makes one admire how particular the longest-lived mines are, just like the Dome gold mine in Timmins (1910 to 2017), the Sullivan silver-lead-zinc mine in Kimberley (1895 to 2001), and the Stobie (1886 to 2017) and Creighton (1901 to current) nickel-copper mines in Sudbury.
The historical past of every mineral challenge stays extremely precious and won’t be misplaced because the paper decays. Within the archives additionally, you will discover lots of the sizzling matters of the day, which are nonetheless being debated.
Thanks to Nean Allman and the Classic Ladies in Mining for concepts and leads, and to Johanne Roux on the Geoscience Library of the Ontario Geological Survey in Sudbury, Mark Pellegrino of The John P. Robarts Analysis Library at College of Toronto Libraries, and Michel Brideau of the Public Companies Department of Library and Archives Canada for finding and scanning previous points for this text.
4000 BC – ISLE ROYALE
From 4000 BC to 1000 AD, mining of native copper from as much as 5,000 pits within the Keweenaw Peninsula and Isle Royale, Lake Superior; First Nations buying and selling in copper in Lake Superior space about 4000 BC.
200 BC to 200 AD – COBALT
From 200 BC to 200 AD, First Nations buying and selling in native silver from Cobalt, ON space.
1672 – SYDNEY
Begin of mining coal seams at Sydney, NS in 1672; in 1720, mining of coal by “common strategies” at Cow Bay, Cape Breton Island, NS; in 1830, first mine shaft sunk at Sydney. Coal and metal industries decline after the Second World Struggle; the metal plant and final coal mine shut in 2001.
1842 – MONTREAL
Geological Survey of Canada based in Montreal in 1842 by William Logan; strikes to Ottawa in 1880.
1848 – Lawrencetown
Gold found in Lawrencetown, NS in 1848; nearly 100 working gold mines in Nova Scotia by 1899.
Begin of railway constructing interval within the 1860s, linking communities and offering environment friendly technique of delivery mine manufacturing.
1861 – CARIBOO GOLDFIELDS
Discovery of wealthy gold deposits within the Cariboo district of BC in 1861. The Barkerville placer gold mines have been labored from 1864 to the Thirties, producing 4.5 million ouncesof gold.
In 2020, Osisko Growth Corp. proposed to assemble and function the Cariboo Gold Undertaking, an underground gold mine and related infrastructure, within the historic Cariboo mining district.
1866 – GODERICH; WINDSOR
Salt mattress found at Goderich, ON in 1866 whereas drilling to probe for oil, and salt has been mined from the Goderich website since then. The Windsor salt mine opened in 1893. Each mines are nonetheless in operation.
Canada born as a Dominion in 1867
1870 – MONTREAL
Canada’s first faculty of mines established in 1870 at McGill College in Montreal.
1878 – THETFORD MINES
Johnson Asbestos Co. mine opens in 1878 at Thetford Mines, QC adopted by WH Jeffrey mine at Danville and the Bell Asbestos and different mines in space. Peak annual manufacturing of chrysotile asbestos in Canada in 1973, totalling 1.7 million tonnes. No asbestos mining in Canada in 2022.
1879 – CROWS NEST PASS
Opening of Crows Nest Go coal fields in 1879, BC; adopted within the early years of the twentieth Century by the Elk Valley coal mines, 4 or that are in operation right this moment.
1882 – OTTAWA
The Canadian Mining Evaluation first printed in Ottawa in 1882. From 1887, BTA Bell is editor and later proprietor of The Evaluation till his dying in 1904.
1886 – SUDBURY
Copper-nickel ore uncovered in Sudbury, ON space in 1882, close to future Murray mine. Copper Cliff, Stobie (closed in 2017) and Evans mines began up in 1886. In 1888, Copper Cliff smelter blown in; nonetheless in operation as Canada’s longest working smelter.
Victoria and Creighton (nonetheless working) mines open in 1901 and Little Stobie in 1902. Falconbridge mine opens in 1929; Falconbridge smelter blown in, in 1930.
1891 – TRAIL
Lily Might orebody staked in 1889 at Path Creek, the beginning of the Pink Mountain (Rossland) camp in West Kootenay area; mine opens in 1891. Path smelter begins smelting ore from Rossland in 1896, and continues to be in operation.
1895 – KIMBERLEY
Staking of claims on Sullivan silver-lead-zinc deposit in 1892, marking starting of the Sullivan camp in Kimberley, BC. Sullivan mine opens in 1895, and is at one time the biggest underground lead-zinc mine on the earth; large-scale growth of mine in 1947; the mine closes in 2001.
1896 – DAWSON CITY
Discovery claims staked in 1896 on Bonanza (Rabbit) Creek close to Dawson Metropolis, YT resulting in Klondike staking rush in 1898 – one of many biggest gold rushes in historical past. Manufacturing of placer gold from Klondike peaked in 1900.
On the urging of Canadian Mining Evaluation editor BTA Bell, in 1896 all present provincial teams affiliate to kind Federated Canadian Mining Institute, with Bell as its first Secretary. Renamed Canadian Mining Institute in 1898; renamed Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM) in 1990
1904 – SQUAMISH
Britannia copper-zinc orebody staked in 1898 close to Squamish, BC; manufacturing begins in 1904, and mine closes in 1974. Now a mining museum.
1904 – COBALT
Discovery of silver and cobalt in 1903 alongside railroad line in Timiskaming area, resulting in a staking rush and constructing of city of Cobalt, ON. Manufacturing begins in 1904 at Trethewey, LaRose, McKinley-Darragh and Nipissing mines. In 1911 there are 34 mines producing over 30 million oz. silver yearly.
Manufacturing slows to a trickle after the Thirties. By the Sixties, the world has produced over 420 million oz. of silver. There is no such thing as a manufacturing after the Nineteen Eighties.
First situation of The Canadian Mining Journal printed in 1907 in Montreal, incorporating The Canadian Mining Evaluation
Congratulations to the Canadian Mining Journal on its a hundred and fortieth anniversary – a panoramic span that covers practically the whole historical past of mining in Canada.
After I grew to become editor in 1984, that posting turned out to be an important section in my life journey. It was my first administration function in a profession that later led me to begin a number of mining corporations, with working mines in 4 international locations and 1000’s of workers.
– Kerry Knoll, govt chairman and director, Era Mining
1910 – TIMMINS
The Dome, Hollinger and McIntyre gold deposits staked in 1909 at Porcupine Lake close to Timmins, ON. Dome mine opens in 1910; destroyed by fireplace together with Hollinger mine and Porcupine camp in 1911 with nice lack of life. Mines restart in 1912. Dome mine closes in 2017.
1913 – KIRKLAND LAKE
Discovery in 1911 of gold and staking of Wright-Hargreaves and Sylvanite deposits, Kirkland Lake, ON. Manufacturing years for the Kirkland Lake space gold mines embrace Robust-Oakes (Toburn) (1913-53), Teck-Hughes (1915-65), Lake Shore (1918-87), Kirkland Lake (1919-60), and Wright-Hargreaves (1921-65). Kerr mine opens in close by Virginiatown in 1911, turns into Kerr-Addison mine in 1938 and closes in 1996.
World Struggle I (1914-18) will increase demand for metals, but additionally takes labour for struggle effort, e.g., Dome mine closed from 1917 to 1919 attributable to labour scarcity
The Northern Miner weekly newspaper established in Cobalt, ON; strikes to Toronto in 1929
1927 – FLIN FLON
Discovery in 1914 of copper-zinc mineralization at Flin Flon, MB; mining begins in 1927. Concentrator, copper smelter and zinc plant start-up in 1930. Mining begins at Trout Lake mine in 1982, and at 777 mine in 2004.
1917 – ROUYN-NORANDA
Discovery of Horne copper-gold deposits at Rouyn-Noranda, QC in 1920 results in a staking rush. The Horne mine (1927-76) recovers 11.6 million oz. gold and 1.13 million tonnes of copper. The Horne copper smelter opens in 1927, nonetheless in operation.
1928 – BUCHANS
Discovery in 1905 of lead-zinc-copper deposits at Buchans, NL is first discovery utilizing geophysical strategies; copper-lead mine opens in 1928 and closes in 1979.
Inventory market crash on October 29, 1929 results in weak spot in funding and Nice Despair
1929 – VAL D’OR
Sigma and Lamaque gold deposits staked in 1920 in Val-d’Or, QC. Siscoe gold mine operates 1929-49. Lamaque mine opens in 1935 and Sigma in 1937, collectively producing greater than 10 million oz. gold; now mixed as one challenge, which re-opens in 2019. Peak yr of gold mining in Abitibi-Temiscamingue area of Quebec in 1942, with 42 mines working.
Louvicourt copper-zinc-gold mine operates 1994 to 2005; Kiena gold mine 1981 to 2002. In close by Cadillac space, Thompson Bousquet gold mine opened in 1978, the Doyon gold mine in 1979, and the LaRonde polymetallic mine in 1988. LaRonde stays in manufacturing in addition to Bousquet (now referred to as “LZ5”).
1931 – SHERRIDON; FORT SASKATCHEWAN
Sherritt Gordon claims staked in 1919, Amisk Lake, SK; Sherridon mine operates from 1931 to 1951. In 1952, Sherritt relocates new nickel refinery to Fort Saskatchewan, AB; it begins up in 1954.
Ontario Prospectors Affiliation based in 1932; turns into Prospectors and Builders Affiliation in 1957, and Prospectors & Builders Assoc. of Canada (PDAC) in 1987
1933 – PORT RADIUM; PORT HOPE
Discovery in 1930 of pitchblende deposits, at Port Radium, Nice Bear Lake, NT. Eldorado uranium-radium mine opens in 1933 in addition to refinery in Port Hope, ON to deal with focus and cobbed ore. Mine provides uranium to the US WWII effort, notably the Manhattan (atomic bomb) challenge. Mine closes in 1982; the refinery stays open right this moment.
1938 – RED LAKE
Discovery of gold together with the Howey deposit in 1925 results in staking rush in Pink Lake, ON; among the many earliest to make use of air transport. The primary rush ends in 5 gold mines together with the Madsen mine (1938-76 and re-opens in 2021 as Pure Gold mine) and the Cochenour-Willans mine (1939-71).
Second gold rush ends in 10 extra mines together with Campbell mine in 1947 and adjoining Dickenson mine in 1948. These two mines be part of as one operation below one proprietor in 2006, and are nonetheless in manufacturing.
1938 – YELLOWKNIFE
Staking rush in Yellowknife, NT in 1934 results in Con gold mine opening in 1938 (closes 2003). Second staking rush in 1944 results in Big gold mine opening in 1948 (closes in 2004).
Congratulations CMJ! What a rewarding 45-year profession this journal has been. The business is ever altering, and my journey bug has been glad from the Arctic to the Andes and Europe. I’ve seen corners of Canada I by no means would have thought to go to with out the lure of the minerals business.
Everybody I met patiently answered my questions, particularly Richard Fish, the primary editor I labored with. I thank each one in all them for contributing to the success of CMJ.
– Marilyn Scales, CMJ workers author since mid-Nineteen Seventies
World Struggle II (1939-45) will increase demand for sure metals, and causes labour shortages.
1951 – MURDOCHVILLE
Copper deposits found in 1921 in Murdochville, Gaspé area, Quebec. Mining begins at Gaspé Copper Mines in 1951, with copper smelter beginning up in 1955. Mining started at Needle Mountain in 1955, and at Copper Mountain in 1968. Mining operations stop in 1999, and smelter closes in 2002.
1953 – WOLLASTON LAKE; BEAVERLODGE LAKE
Discovery in 1950 of uranium within the Beaverlodge Lake, SK space. Ace uranium mine opens in 1953, and Rix mine in 1954. Discovery of Rabbit Lake uranium deposit in 1967 in Athabasca Basin;
Rabbit Lake mine opens in 1975 (closes 2016); Cluff Lake mine opens in 1981 (closes 2002); Key Lake mine opens in 1983 (closes 1999). McClean and McArthur River mines open in 1999, Cigar Lake in 2014; all three proceed to function.
1954 – LABRADOR CITY
Iron ore mining begins in 1954 at Ruth Lake No. 3 and Gagnon C mines, in Labrador Trough of Quebec’s North Shore and western Labrador, close to Labrador Metropolis. Wabush mine opens in 1960, and Smallwood (Wabush No. 5) and Carol Lake iron mines in 1962.
Mont Wright mine opens in 1974 and continues to function. The Scully mine closes in 2014, however later re-opens. The Bloom Lake mine opens in 2010, and re-opens in 2018.
1955 – ELLIOT LAKE
Blind River uranium deposit found close to Elliot Lake, ON in 1953. Pronto mine opens in 1955, Quirke Lake mine in 1956, and Denison mine in 1957. Elliot Lake uranium manufacturing peaks in 1959. Final mine in operation, Stanleigh mine, closes in 1996.
For nearly a century and a half, CMJ has been the predominant mining authority in Canada and world wide, and I’m proud to depend myself as one in all its editorial alumni.
The journal left me with recollections – from the Polaris Mine, probably the most northerly base metallic mine on the earth, to the Barrick Gold operations in Nevada, and manufacturing amenities in Japan.
– Scott Anderson, CMJ managing editor, 1988-91
Potash found in Saskatchewan in 1946; preliminary manufacturing is in 1958 at Endurance Lake mine close to Saskatoon, SK. Shaft accomplished in 1962 at Okay-1 mine at Esterhazy, which turns into the world’s largest potash mine; Allan, Cory and Lanigan mines open in 1968.
1961 – THOMPSON
Thompson nickel deposit found in 1956 at Thriller Lake, MB. Thompson mining, smelting and refining operations start in 1961. Smelting and refining shut in 2018, however mining continues.
1962 – KAMLOOPS
Highland Valley porphyry copper deposit found close to Kamloops, BC in 1955. Bethlehem (Valley Copper) mine opens in 1962, Lornex mine in 1969, and Highmont mine in 1980. Highland Valley operations proceed. Afton copper deposit found close by in 1972, and mine opens in 1977, adopted by Ajax, Crescent and Pothook pits in 1978. Afton-Ajax mine closes in 1997.
Windfall Oil & Mines scandal, results in a Royal Fee investigation into inventory value manipulation
1964 – BATHURST
Discovery of huge sulphide deposit in 1952 in Bathurst, NB space results in opening of Brunswick No. 12 zinc-lead mine in 1964 and Brunswick No. 6 in 1966 (closes in 1983). Lead-zinc smelter opens in 1967 at Belledune, NB. Operations stop in 2013.
1965 – TIMMINS
Discovery in 1963 by Texas Gulf Sulphur of Kidd Creek zinc-copper-silver huge sulphide by airborne and floor geophysics, close to Timmins, ON. Mine opens in 1965; growth of Mine D begins in 2000. Smelter and refinery shut in 2010; mine stays open.
1978 – FORT McMURRAY
Manufacturing begins in 1978 at Syncrude, the world’s largest oil sands mining operation close to Fort McMurray, AB.
1979 – HEMLO
Gold first found within the Hemlo, ON space in 1869 after which 1944; re-staked in 1979. Golden Big and David Bell gold mines open in 1985, and Williams mine in 1986. Golden Big closes in 2005.
US EPA plans to ban key merchandise containing asbestos, leading to staged finish to the makes use of of asbestos in manufacturing
1983 – TUMBLER RIDGE
The primary report of coal fields in Peace River district, BC is in 1879. Manufacturing begins in 1983 at Bullmoose coal mine close to Tumbler Ridge, BC (closes 2003); Quintette mine opens in 1983 (closes in 2000).
1995 – STEWART
Discoveries in 1988 led to the opening of Eskay Creek gold-silver mine in 1995, Stewart, BC; closed in 2008. It was the best grade gold mine on the earth when in manufacturing, with common grades of 45 g/t gold and a couple of,224 g/t silver.
Bre-X scandal: the corporate’s 50-million oz. gold deposit in Busang, Indonesia is revealed as an elaborate fraud, negatively affecting mining shares and investments for a few years
1998 – LAC DE GRAS
Kimberlite pipes found at Level Lake close to Lac de Gras, NT in 1991 triggering a diamond staking rush in 1992; Ekati, Canada’s first diamond mine, opened as a pit in 1998, provides underground mining in 2002, and continues right this moment.
Diavik diamond mine opens in 2003, the yr Canada turns into third most vital diamond-producing nation on the earth; Diavik continues working. Snap Lake mine operates from 2008 to 2015 as an underground mine. Gahcho Kwé mine opens in 2016 and continues.
2005 – VOISEY’S BAY
Discovery of main copper-nickel deposits in 1994 at Voisey’s Bay, Labrador; acquired by Inco in 1996. Mine opened in 2005 and continues to function.
Sources of archives of Canadian mining publications
At www.canadiana.ca you could find digital variations of The Canadian Mining Evaluation, The Canadian Mining & Mechanical Evaluation and The Canadian Mining Journal from 1883 by 1920.
A full assortment of the sure points or microfilm of The Canadian Mining Journal, The Northern Miner and different Canadian mining publications will be discovered within the Nationwide Library in Ottawa in addition to the libraries of provincial geological surveys and universities.
There’s a pleasant abstract of the earlier sixty years of mining (“The Sample of the Years”) printed within the November 1939 situation of CMJ. All volumes as much as 2000 embrace an annual index. CMJ’s digital archives relationship from 2000 to the current will be discovered at www.canadianminingjournal.com.
“A Chronology of Minerals Growth in Canada” is an in depth timeline of Canadian mining occasions that stretches from 9,000 years in the past to 2005. This was first printed within the CIM Bulletin and may now be discovered at https://publications.gc.ca/website/eng/100601/publication.html.
It additionally fashioned the appendix to CIM Particular Quantity 52, 2000, A Century of Achievement – The Growth of Canada’s Minerals Industries, printed to commemorate the centennial of the CIM’s founding in 1898.
The oral historical past challenge From Rock to Actuality contains 82 interviews (and counting) of Canadian mining notables that itself is a part of the Mining and Metallurgy Legacy Undertaking. The latter’s organizers included the CIM MetSoc and the Canada Museum of Science & Expertise. Try this URL for hyperlinks to the articles and interviews: https://ingeniumcanada.org/centre/the-mining-and-metallurgy-legacy-